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Bachelor in Microbiology Page

Content List:
  • Main Terms Defined

  • Introduction
  • History of Artificial blood (nanobots)
  • Components of Nanorobots
  • Properties of Nanobots
  • Parts
  • Biomimetic
  • Introduction of Respirocytes
  • Introduction to Microbivore
  • Introduction to Clottocytes
  • The function of Artificial Blood with respect to Natural Blood
  • Are They Safe?
  • Applications
  • Conclusion
  • References

Main Terms Defined:
-          Nanotechnology:
It is a field where devices are made with the precision to the scale of 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). This scale yields precision level at the atomic and molecular level. Nanotechnology is also referred to as molecular manufacturing. This technology has varieties of applications in a wide range of fields like chemistry, biology, physics and computer science.
-          Nanobots
Nanobots are also termed as nano-robots, these robots are actually nanometers sized.

Envision of a future ‘’vasculoid’’ (vascular-like machine) was done by Robert A. Freitas. It was envisioned that it will take place of the human blood with few 500 trillion nanobots dispersed throughout the body’s vasculature as an overlay. The study was derived to medical nanobots called respirocytes which is resembling red blood cells. The nanobots are basically a simulated nanoscale device consisting of a sensor and a motor which is likely to perform specific tasks.
This study can abolish cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and other vascular problem such as pathogens, harmful microbes, viral diseases and drain tumour cells to minimize the extent of the bloodborne disease; the smooth movement of lymphocytes to improve the immune system; minimizes vulnerability to chemical, biochemical, and parasitic poisons; refine physical tolerance and energy; and mostly keeps the defense from various accidents and other physical damage.
With the futuristic molecular nanotechnology, one could put blood with a simple complex robot. This kind of robot has the ability to resemble all vital thermal and biochemical transport functions of the blood cell-like flow of the respiratory gases, dextrose, hormones, cytokines, excess waste leftovers and all the vital cellular compounds. This robot works by adhering to the blood of the human with no harm to the body. This nanotechnology is a mechanically engineered redesigned human blood also called artificial blood. It has no harm on any part of the human host body.
Molecular nanotechnology is basically the creation of precise device at a molecular level, as the human body is made up of various molecules, this nanotechnology can have a huge impact on the medical history of human services.
Nanobots will have remarkable involvement in the medical field. It will be an effective way to diagnosis and treat patients and transform the collagen system which in return is the improvement of the human health with the precision of molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body.

The demands of synthetic blood raised because of our day by day habitual and the meals that we consume including dangerous elements which wreck our blood, so there comes the need of synthetic blood and also because of the raised demands of blood in case of emergency.
The first scientist to mention the term ‘’nanobots’’ was a physicist Richard Feynman in 1959; when he gave his popular talk named ‘’There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.’’ He predicted about nanochips and nanobots for the curing of heart diseases. The first study was done by Robert Freitas on nanobots.
Later, the scientist Eric Drexler, encourage by the term in return published his book ‘’Engines of Creation’’, where genetically programmed molecular machines had been stated as upcoming technology in cellular biology. The first experimental study related to nanobots was made by Robert Freitas. It turned into related to medical nanobots called respirocytes; such as red blood cells. Nanobots can be defined as a controllable nanoscale machine composed of a sensor and a motor, successful by acting precise responsibilities. These are not resemblance to a drone, instead, these are more similar to a complex piece of fabric. Robert Wood defined these as machines that detect friends or enemies; undergoing through a complex changing when they sense an enemy, catalyzing the release of a substance that can’t have an act towards them.
According to medical folklore, the first recorded blood transfusion was done by ancient Incas. There was no real success reported until the year 1616 when it was discovered how blood is circulated throughout the body by William Harvey. In the following years, medical researchers experimented various substances such as beer, urine, milk, plant resins and sheep blood as a replacement of blood. The expectation was to cure diseases and even change personality with the replacing of one’s blood.
The first experimental successful blood transfusion was done in 1667. Unfortunately, the experiment turned into halted because the patients who received next transfusions died.
In typical we speak how nanobots are used as artificial blood because of this that the affected person having blood group which may be very rare (-O) may be stored with the assist of nanobots.

The various parts in nanobot consist of power supply, gasoline buffer tank, sensors, motors, manipulators, onboard computer systems, pumps, strain tanks and structural assist. The substructures in a nanobot consist of:
1.      Payload: This void phase holds a small dose of drug/medication. The nanobots should transverse within the blood and release the drug to the website of contamination/injury.
2.      Micro digicam: The nanobot might also consist of a miniature digital camera. The operator can steer the nanorobot whilst navigating through the body manually.
3.      Electrodes: The electrode installed at the nanobot could form the battery using the electrolytes within the blood. These protruding electrodes may also kill the most cancer cells by means of generating an electric-powered cutting-edge, and heating the cells up to death.
4.      Lasers: These lasers may want to burn the dangerous fabric like arterial plaque, blood clots or most cancer cells.
5.      Ultrasonic signal turbines: These turbines are used when nanobots are used to goal and wreck kidney stones.
6.      Swimming tail- The nanorobot would require a way of propulsion to get into the frame as they travel towards the go with the flow of blood inside the body.
The nanorobot can have motors for motion and manipulator fingers or mechanical leg for mobility. The two predominant methods followed in the production of nanorobots are Positional meeting and Self meeting. In a self meeting, the arm of a miniature robotic or a microscopic set is used to pick out the molecules and bring together manually. In the positional meeting, the investigators will be placed billions of molecules together and allow them to routinely assemble based on their natural affinities into the favoured configuration. Nanorobot Control Design is the software program developed for simulating nanorobots in the environment with fluids that are ruled by Brownian motion. The nanorobots have chemical sensors which could hit upon the goal molecules.
The nanorobots are provided with swarm intelligence for decentralization pastime. Swarm intelligence techniques are the algorithms designed for synthetic intelligence of the nanorobot. The swarm intelligence method is been inspired with the aid of the behaviour of social animals along with ants, bees and termites which paintings collaboratively without centralized management. The three important types of swarm intelligence strategies designed are ant colony optimization (ACO), artificial bee colony (ABC) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)

Using organic materials such as proteins and polynucleotides, or inorganic materials such as metals of diamonds. These nanobots are manufactured by layering gold nanowires with a hybrid of red blood cell membranes and platelets. The main element is the solubility and the interconnection with other cells and macromolecules. The sizing of the nanobots eventually has an effect on their motion, percolation and reaction. Metal ought to have double purposes, such as silver. It can be the bottom of a nanobot and to have an antibacterial effect. In a few cases, they can act as a virus causing non-changeable cell damage. Different various extracellular nanostructures could be used as a model. Ga et al. used spiral water conduction vessels of plants coated with thin Ti and Ni layers, attaining green propulsion in organic media. Depending on the fuel used, the propulsion mechanism may be biocompatible or now not.



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One of the main elements which interest the research of nanobots in medicine has been to develop an effective treatment that could target the specific site where it is much needed to be which can minimize the damage to the healthy parts of the body that any regular treatment could cause. This idea shows having nanobots designed to come across and mobilize to a determined a part of the body where the problem is placed and, with the best scenario sends good feedbacks. Because of these determinant duties (come across and mobilize), two devices may be diagnosed as critical:
1.      Sensors
2.      Propulsion device
And from this fact, it may be deduced some other devices may be required as well, like power supplies and nanocomputers, without the deduction devices to manufacture a specific task like storage compartments or manipulators.
1.     Sensors:
Sensors are one of the most crucial elements in nanobots. Mechanical, thermal, optical, magnetic, chemical and biological sensors were tested in nanobots programs. Any sensor that makes use of a nanoscale phenomenon for its operation is classified as a nanosensor. On the organic element, biosensors utilize organic reactions for detecting goal analytes and thinking about the requirements to operate the targeted treatment which is highly desired by nanobots in medicine, this type of sensors are the most evident devices to be explored in the field of nanotechnology. However, in general, sensors have two main functions to the surface, detecting the presence of the target molecules and not directly understand the amount of harm that exists from the alternate inside the functional properties of nanobots.
2.      Propulsion equipment
Propulsion is in charge of the movement of nanobots, and this is the purpose why many extraordinary vehicles and propulsion equipment in the standard have been designed. Nanomotors can be defined as nanoscale gadgets with their personal propulsion, obtaining energy via chemical reactions of the medium, power, magnetic or acoustic fields. Even so, this scale; the main ones are due to the viscosity and Brownian movement. It ought to be noted that Brownian movement corresponds to the random motion of particles due to the thermal collisions among the molecules of the solvent and the colloidal particles. In other phrases, the main problem I having a nanobot with sufficient strength to overcome the properties of a fluid in the nanoscale and achieve movement.

Biomimetics means synthetic technique imitating biochemical activity.
With the help of nanobots, the researcher has made artificial blood imitating the natural blood of the human body.
The artificial blood consists of:
  •  Respirocytes 
  • Microbivores 
  • Clottocytes
These artificial respirocytes are in a hollow shape, a spherical nanomedical machine which is 1 micron in diameter. The structural of the respirocyte is mainly built of the precise arrangement of structural atoms moreover has 9 billion molecules to clasps on when it is fully filled. Respirocytes are tiny nanodevices, minute machine-like devices manufactured to function on a molecular level. These are resemblance to red blood cells, which has the ability to carry Oand CO2 through the body.
Respirocytes consists of 3 principal storage tanks:
  • -          One for O2
  • -          One for CO2
  • -          Ballast water,

Generation of power is done by combining dextrose taken in from the bloodstream and oxygen from internal storage with the help of chemo-mechanical turbine or fuel cell. Which is changed to mechanical power, this drives the molecular sorting rotors and other subunits like of bacterial flagella. The powerplant inserted produces 0.3 picowatts of energy, which is quite well for the filling of O2 in the tank within 10 seconds. A fluid-filled does the working to transmit power. Dispersion of power is running with sliding rods and gear trains, or using valves and pipes and is managed by the computer. The charge and un-charging of the respiratory gas is controlled sharply by computer.
-          How Respirocytes Works?
A typical human body consists of 28.5 trillion red blood cells, each of which contains 270 million haemoglobin molecules that is bind to four Omolecules per haemoglobin. Whereas only 25% of stored O2 is reachable to the tissue from between 95% saturation (arterial) and 70% saturation (venous).
Likewise, each respirocyte has storage of up to 1.51 billion O2 molecules, of which 100% is reachable to the tissues. And to fully mimic the human blood active ability, they made 5.36 trillion machines.
One is a therapeutic dose which imitates the natural red cell function which carries the respiratory gas requirements whereas, one of aa remarkable nanotechnology manufacture is the nanobot- the artificial blood which has the natural human capabilities. The largest number of respirocyte can be inserted into the bloodstream to infuse the maximum amount of oxygen permanently. With this, you can hold your breath for 3.8 hours at a normal metabolic resting rate as it has the dosage of about 1 litre of 50% respirocyte which can insert 954 trillion nanodevices into your bloodstream.

Microbivores are considered to be used in human medical services for a wide variety of antimicrobial therapeutic reason and is the huge class of medical nanobots for the human body. The device is very simple: an intravenous (I.V.) microbivore having a principal function to destroy microbiological pathogens which is found in the bloodstream of the human. With the method of ‘’ digest and discharge’’. These microbivores operate as artificial white blood cells or nanorobotic phagocytes used to guard the bloodstream by seeking out and engulfing unwanted waste or pathogens including bacteria, viral diseases or fungi.
-          How Microbivore Works?
During the procedure of the nanorobot, a target bacterium has adhered to the surface of the bloodborne microbivore like glue on a paper with the help of species-specific reversible binding sites. Telescoping robot grapples emerge from silos inside the device floor, establish relaxed anchorage to the microbe’s plasma membrane, the engulfs the pathogen to the ingestion port at the front of the device in which the pathogen cell is internalized right into a 2 micron3 morcellation chamber. After sufficient mechanical mincing, the chopped-up fragments of the cell are piston into a separate 2 micron3 digestion chamber in which already programmed sequence of 40 engineered enzymes are successively injected and extracted 6 times, gradually decreasing the mash into amino acids, mononucleotides, simple fatty acids and sugars. Through an exhaust port, these simple molecules are then smoothly discharged into the bloodstream at the rear of the device.
Advantage of this the no matter how the bacterium is resistant to certain antibiotics or to any other traditional treatments, these microbivores will engulf and eat it up anyway which is remarkably achieved the complete clearance of the most sever bloodborne infections in minutes to hours rather than the use of present-day antibiotics which take several weeks or months. These are 1000 times faster than any phagocytic defences.

Introduction to Clottocytes:
the choanocyte is a theoretical, layout by Robert A. Freitas Jr. for and artificial, mechanical platelet. The response time of a choanocyte would be on the scale of 100 or 1000 times faster than nature’s platelets, reaching whole hemostasis in as quick as 1 second. Clottocytes might have several distinct benefits over their natural counterparts. For example, drugs such as aspirin can affect platelet functioning drastically. Whereas clottocytes would be immune to these effects of drugs and this could operate smoothly which no interruption in the bloodstream regardless of chemical fluctuation. This is the unique benefits of nanotechnology which brought artificial blood consisting one of these colonocytes and also with the help of biotechnology. These are 10,000 times more effective than natural platelets in coagulation of blood at the injured sites.
-          How Clottocytes Works?
The normal requirement of platelets in the bloodstream is of concentration at approximately 0.01% eventually clottocytes would be approximately 2-micron diameter sphere-shaped nanobots which is powered by serum oxyglucose and programmed and operated by an onboard nanocomputer. They might include a compactly folded fiver mesh which may be unfurled inside the instant place of a damaged blood vessel. The overlapping nettings deployed by the way of activated clottocytes would trap blood cells and halt bleeding almost at once.

The function of Artificial Blood with respect to Natural Blood:
1.      Respirocytes resembling Red Blood Cell
Red Blood Cell
a.      These are minute nanomedical machine, sizing 1 micron in diameter created to function at a molecule scale level.
a.      RBC are of 6.2-8.2 µm, it is much smaller than other human cells.
b.      These respirocytes has a function of transferring O2 and CO2 molecules to the rest of the body as artificial red blood.
b.      97-98% of O2 from lungs to body tissues is transported by hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin.
c.       These were used instead of natural blood cells in case of critical emergency for a short-term replacement. 
c.       23% of CO2 from the body tissues to the lungs is also transported by hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin.
d.      These are also used with the removal of other gases in the bloodstream.
e.       Respirocytes could also be implicated as a complete or partial indicative treatment for all forms of anaemia problems.

2.      Microbivores resembling White Blood Cell
White Blood Cell
a.      The guarding of the body as a soldier is done by Neutrophils which eats up the invading foreign microbes with the help of phagocytosis.
b.      These microbivores nanobots have the function to attach antibodies to a specific bacterium that the robot has the command to seek.
b.      prevention of blood coagulation in the blood vessel is done by basophil which secretes heparin.
c.       After bacterium is attached to an antibody. The nanobot claps onto the bacteria and moves it to the internal compartment of the nanobot where it is destroyed. After the destruction of the bacteria, its small harmful fragments are released into the bloodstream.
c.       Eating up destroyed and dead cells to keep the body clean of waste is done by monocytes which act as a scavenger.
d.      Healing of damaged or wounded cells is done with the help of Acidophiles.
e.       Immunity from pathogens and disease with the production of antibodies is done by lymphocytes.

3.      Clottocytes resembling Platelets
a.      It is an artificial platelet
a.      When injured these platelets function by release an enzyme called thromboplastin which causes the coagulation of the blood-forming clot to prevent excessive bleeding and bacterial invasion.
b.      Reduces the time for the blood to clot.
c.       Hemostatic in less than 1 second even for large wounded areas.

Are They Safe?
Respirocytes are extremely dependable. Easy evaluation of probably radiation harm suggests that the common respirocyte needs to final about 2 decades earlier than failing. If a malfunction of strength happens even as the respirocytes is in your bloodstream, its temperature won’t increase at all. The reason is that the 7.3 picowatts of continuous thermal energy, the device can easily absorb by the huge heat sink which has a bountiful hear capacity. Each device consists of up to 0.24 micro3 of O2 and CO2 gas at 1000 atm pressure which shows 24 picojoules of stored mechanical energy. If in case the device is destroyed or blast in air, there is no acoustic shockwave. Whereas if it blasts in the human tissue, then water temperature increases by 0.04oC. so, a single-device blast is unlike to create embolic or other harmful damage.
Therefore, even bombardment of this biomimetics or with their spinning sorting rotors cause no harm or serious damage physically to their other cells in the bloodstream such as platelets, WBC, RBC or natural RBC or blood vessels. Laboratory tests show that the diamonded surface is very biocompatible.

These nanobot artificial blood can offer a:
  • -          Temporary substitute for natural blood cells in case of emergency.
  • E.g. If a man or a woman has lost entry to natural oxygen supply due to drowning, choking, or another form of asphyxia, respirocytes can launch oxygen all through the bloodstream till the risk has eliminated.
  • -          Destruction of harmful foreign particles e.g. Viral disease, pathogens etc.
  • -          Microbivores in artificial blood operates just like white blood cells in human bodies, but are manufactured mostly to be faster at killing the bacteria or foreign particles.
  • -          Respirocytes used for other problems with gases in the bloodstream. If one inhales Carbon monoxide or other poisonous gases, special respirocytes designed to capture the ones precise molecules to clean the body quickly.
  • -          The beneficial utility is in deep-sea diving. If a diver dives too fast, she or he frequently suffers from the ‘’bends’’, a problem caused by dissolved nitrogen bubbles in the bloodstream. These respirocytes are designed to capture nitrogen molecules throughout the dives.
  • -          With the use of artificial blood, one can also preserve living tissues, particularly at low temperature, for grafts (kidney, marrow, liver and pores and skins) and for organ transplantation.
  • -          Respirocytes could also be used as a whole or partial symptomatic remedy for surely all kinds of anaemia.
  • -          Artificial blood via nanobot could assist the kind of lung diseases and situations ranging in severity from hay fever, allergies and loud night breathing to tetanus, pneumonia and polio.
  • -          The device can also make contributions to the fulfilment of positive extraordinarily aggressive cardiovascular and neurovascular procedures, tumour treatments and diagnostics.
  • -          The ‘’nano lung’’ is an exciting design alternative to augmentation infusion is a therapeutic population of respirocytes that loads and unloads at an artificial nano lung, a diamond stress tanks, the aerobots in this scene are used in the lungs for detection of pathogens, medical remedy, and mobile repair.
  • -          Respirocytes can supply oxygen to muscle tissues quicker than the lungs can offer for the event of sports to help with athletes.
  • -          Artificial blood substitutes may additionally have huge use in veterinary medicine, mainly in cases of vehicular trauma and kidney failure wherein transfusions are required, and in battlefield, programs demanding blood for the employee’s overall performance enhancement.

Within the subsequent 20 years, nanotechnology will strengthen significantly and may be absolutely capable of generating tiny complicated machines. The development of nanodevices that assemble different nanomachines will permit for big reasonably-priced production. Thus, respirocytes could be synthetic economically and abundantly.
The ability to construct merchandise by molecular manufacturing would create a radical development in the manufacture of technologically advanced merchandise. Everything from computer systems to weapons to consumer goods, and even computer factories, could become incredibly reasonably-priced and smooth to construct. If that is possible, the policy implications are great.

Stem Cell Research
  • Stem Cell Research
  • Characteristics of Stem Cell
  • Historical Perspectives
  • Classification of /stem Cells on the Basis of Potency
  • Classification of Stem Cells on the basis of their Sources
  • Applications of Stem Cells
  • Potential Uses of Stem Cells
  • Policy Challenge
  • Ethical, Social, Political Debate
  • Stem Cell Research Controversy
  • Potential Impact on Health
  • Guidelines for Stem Cell Research
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Page

Stem cells are undifferentiated, or “blank,” cells. This means they’re capable of developing into cells that serve numerous functions in different parts of the body. Most cells in the body are differentiated cells. These cells can only serve a specific purpose in a particular organ. For example, red blood cells are specifically designed to carry oxygen through the blood.
All humans start out as only one cell. This cell is called a zygote, or a fertilized egg. The zygote divides into two cells, then four cells, and so on. Eventually, the cells begin to differentiate, taking on a certain function in a part of the body. This process is called differentiation.
Stem cells are cells that haven’t differentiated yet. They have the ability to divide and make an indefinite number of copies of themselves. Other cells in the body can only replicate a limited number of times before they begin to break down. When a stem cell divides, it can either remain a stem cell or turn into a differentiated cell, such as a muscle cell or a red blood cell.
CHARACTERISTICS OF STEM CELL                                                                   

  • First, stem cells are generalized cells that have the capability of replenishing themselves through the process of cell division, which sometimes happens after a long phase of sluggishness.                                                                                                                                
  • Secondly, under particular physiological or investigational situations, they can also be induced to turn them to organs or tissues. In various organs like bone marrow and the gut, stem cells divide regularly to repair and replace damaged and worn out tissues in the body. In other body organs like the heart and the pancreas, stem cells are known to divide only on particular conditions.

Historical perspectives                                                                           
The history of these cells’ research is for more than 5 decades. In early 1950, there was the discovery that the bone marrow has at least two different types of stem cells. They include; hematopoietic stem cells which is applicable in the formation of all types of the body blood cells and bone marrow stromal stem cells, which are made by stem cells of non-hematopoietic in the bone marrow. They produce bone, fat, cartilages, fibrous connective tissue, and cells that usually support the bold formation process.
In the 1960s, the study of rats done by scientist discovered that there are two regions in the brain that have dividing cells that later become nerve cells. Despite this report, many scientists have a belief that an adult brain could be unable to produce new nerve cells.
 Later in 1990s, scientists believed that an adult brain do contain stem cells that have the power to produce the three main cells types brain.
In conclusion, embryonic stem cells are easily grown in culture. They are rare mature tissue, thus the process of separating them from an adult tissue is a challenge, and the means to expand these cells are yet to be innovated. This distinction is critical since many cells are required to conduct stem cell replacement therapies. Through research, scientists have reasons to prove that those tissues, which results from the embryonic and those from adult stem cells usually, differ in the likelihood of rejection after transplantation is done. Stem cells and tissues of adults are currently seen to start a rejection after transplantation. This is because cells belonging to as patient are capable of being expanded in culture, coaxed to make them acquire a specialized type of cell, and later reintroduced back to the patient. The use of tissues and adult stem cells whose origin is the patient’s own adult stem cells would suggest that the cells are prone to rejection by the immune system in the body. This shows merit as the rejection of immune an only be circumvented only by immunosuppressive drugs continuous administration although these drugs also have side effects that are deleterious. Additional research needs to be done on the stem cells although there are already research was done which act as a useful tool for developing drugs and modelling diseases and scientist have the confidence of applying them as transplantation medicine. Viruses are nowadays used to induce reprogramming factors into the cells of an adult. In animal, studies have shown that viruses that are applied to the stem cell factors may lead to cancer.

Classification of stem cells on the basis of potency                               
Stem cells can be classified by the extent to which they can differentiate into different cell types. These four main classifications are totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, or unipotent.
1.      Totipotent
The ability to differentiate into all possible cell types. Examples are the zygote formed at egg fertilization and the first few cells that result from the division of the zygote.
2.      Pluripotent
The ability to differentiate into almost all cell types. Examples include embryonic stem cells and cells that are derived from the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm germ layers that are formed in the beginning stages of embryonic stem cell differentiation.
3.      Multipotent
The ability to differentiate into a closely related family of cells. Examples include hematopoietic (adult) stem cells that can become red and white blood cells or platelets.
4.      Oligopotent
The ability to differentiate into a few cells. Examples include (adult) lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.
5.      Unipotent
 The ability to only produce cells of their own type, but have the property of self-renewal required to be labelled a stem cell. Examples include (adult) muscle stem cells.

Classification of stem cells on the basis of their sources
The easiest way to categorize stem cells is by dividing them into two types: Early or embryonic and mature or adult. Early stem cells, often called embryonic stem cells, are found in the inner cell mass of a blastocyst after approximately five days of development. Mature stem cells are found in specific mature body tissues as well as the umbilical cord and placenta after birth25.                                                                  
a)      Embryonic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells are self-replicating pluripotent cells that are potentially immortal26. They are derived from embryos at a developmental stage before the time of implantation would normally occur in the uterus2. The embryos from which human embryonic stem cells are derived are typically four or five days old and are a hollow microscopic ball of cells called the blastocyst.
b)      Adult stem cells
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated totipotent or multipotent cells, found throughout the body after embryonic development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are defined by their origin (the inner cell mass of the blastocyst), the origin of adult stem cells in some mature tissues is still under investigation.
c)     Pluripotent stem cells
 Recently, a third type of stem cell, with properties similar to embryonic stem cells, has emerged. Scientists have engineered these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) by manipulating the expression of certain genes - 'reprogramming' somatic cells back to a pluripotent state.

d)      Stem cell culture
Growing cells in the laboratory are known as cell culture. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are generated by transferring cells from a preimplantation stage embryo into a plastic laboratory culture dish that contains a nutrient broth known as culture medium. The cells divide and spread over the surface of the dish. However, if the plated cells survive, divide and multiply enough to crowd the dish, they are removed gently and plated into several fresh culture dishes. The process of replating or subculturing the cells is repeated many times and for many months. Each cycle of subculturing the cells is referred to as a passage. Once the cell line is established, the original cells yield millions of embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells that have proliferated in cell culture for six or more months without differentiating, are pluripotent, and appear genetically normal are referred to as an embryonic stem cell line. At any stage in the process, batches of cells can be frozen and shipped to other laboratories for further culture and experimentation.                                                           
e)      Stem cell lines
A stem cell line is a family of constantly dividing cells, the product of a single parent group of stem cells. They are obtained from human or animal tissues and can replicate for long periods of time in vitro ("within glass"; or, commonly, "in the lab", in an artificial environment). They are frequently used for research relating to embryonic stem cells or cloning the entire organism. Once stem cells have been allowed to divide and propagate in a controlled culture, the collection of healthy, dividing and undifferentiated cells is called a stem cell line.       

Applications of stem cells
The goal of any stem cell therapy is to repair a damaged tissue that can't heal itself. Ongoing research on stem cell therapies gives hope to patients who would normally not receive treatment to cure their disease but just to alleviate the symptoms of their chronic illness. Stem cell therapies involve more than simply transplanting cells into the body and directing them to grow new, healthy tissue. It may also be possible to coax stem cells already in the body to work overtime and produce new tissue.
Possible treatments by stem cells
A number of stem cell therapeutics exist, but most are at experimental stages and/or costly, with the notable exception of bone marrow transplantation. Medical researchers anticipate that adult and embryonic stem cells will soon be able to treat cancer, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Celiac Disease, cardiac failure, muscle damage and neurological disorders, and many others. They have suggested that before stem cell therapeutics can be applied in the clinical setting, more research is necessary to understand stem cell behaviour upon transplantation as well as the mechanisms of stem cell interaction with the diseased/injured microenvironment.
 Bone marrow transplants (BMT) are a well-known clinical application of stem cell transplantation. BMT can repopulate the marrow and restore all the different cell types of the blood after high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, our main defence used to eliminate endogenous cancer cells. The isolation of additional stem and progenitors cells is now being developed for many other clinical applications. Several are described below.
Skin replacement
The knowledge of stem cells has made it possible for scientists to grow skin from a patient’s plucked hair. Skin (keratinocyte) stem cells reside in the hair follicle and can be removed when a hair is plucked. These cells can be cultured to form an epidermal equivalent of the patients own skin and provides tissue for an autologous graft, bypassing the problem of rejection.

Brain cell transplantation
 Stem cells can provide dopamine - a chemical lacking in victims of Parkinson’s disease. It involves the loss of cells which produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. The first double-blind study of fetal cell transplants for Parkinson’s disease reported survival and release of dopamine from the transplanted cells and functional improvement of clinical symptoms. However, some patients developed side effects, which suggested that there was an over sensitization to or too much dopamine.  Although the unwanted side effects were not anticipated, the success of the experiment at the cellular level is significant.
Treatment for diabetes
Diabetes affects millions of people in the world and is caused by the abnormal metabolism of insulin. Normally, insulin is produced and secreted by the cellular structures called the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Recently, insulin expressing cells from mouse stem cells have been generated. In addition, the cells self assemble to form structures, which closely resemble normal pancreatic islets and produce insulin. Future research will need to investigate how to optimize conditions for insulin production with the aim of providing a stem cell-based therapy to treat diabetes to replace the constant need for insulin injections   

Since stem cells have the ability to turn into various other types of cells, scientists believe that they can be useful for treating and understanding diseases.
  •  grow new cells in a laboratory to replace damaged organs or tissues
  •  correct parts of organs that don’t work properly
  •  research causes of genetic defects in cells
  • research how diseases occur or why certain cells develop into cancer cells
  •  test new drugs for safety and effectiveness   

Why are people conducting stem cell research
An embryonic stem cell is derived from embryos. Most of them are derived from those embryos that that grow from eggs that are fertilized in vitro and then taken for the purpose of research after gaining the permission of the giver. They are not taken from those eggs whose fertilization occurs at the body of the woman. Cell culture is the process of growing these cells in the laboratory.
 In a human being, embryonic stem cells are generated by transferring them from pre-implantation of the culture dish into a plastic laboratory that has nutrients broth. These cells divide and separate over the face of the dish. In the inner face of the dish, there is an embryonic skin cells coat of mouse embryonic skin cells that have been taken care of to limit them from dividing.
 The cell of the mouse at the base of the culture dish offers a sticky surface where they can attach. They also offer nutrients into the culture medium. Through the research, there has an innovation of growing without using mouse feeder cells embryonic stem cells. This is a considerable advance because of the risk that there could be a virus and other macromolecules in the cells of the mouse that may risk being transferred to the cells of a human being.

Policy challenge
The process of producing a budding cell line in inefficient in away. This is because cells are not always produced when cells are placed from the pre-implantation stage. However, in the case of the plated cell survive, they divide and multiply enough and crowd the whole dish. This makes one to gently remove them and plate them in several other fresh culture dishes. This process is repeated for a number of times until the required cell line is established after the original cell produces embryonic stem cells in millions.
At every stage in the process, cells in batches are shipped and frozen to another laboratory to continue with experiment and culture. At various stages in the practice of creating embryonic, scientists conduct the test for the cell to determine whether they the fundamental properties that can make embryonic stem cells. In the study of human embryonic stem cells, scientists have not agreed on the ordinary battery of examination that can be applied in making the fundamental properties of the cell.
 However, laboratories that reproduce embryonic cell lines of human being use several types of tests. This in includes: mounting and subculturing the cells, application of specified techniques to evaluate the presence of transcription factors that are produced by undifferentiated cells among others.
Ethical, Social, Political Debate
Embryonic stem cells remain undifferentiated when they are developed under suitable conditions. Nevertheless, if they are allowed to clump they usually form embryoid bodies and begin to separate spontaneously. They are differentiating to form nerve cells, muscles cells, and other types of cell. Although differentiation shows that customs of embryonic stem cells is strong, it is not the best way to generate a culture of a type of cell that is specific. To be able to generate a culture of specified types of differentiated cells researchers try to manage the separation of the embryonic stem cells. They try to change the work of the customs medium, change the face of the customs dish, or try to change the cell by adding specific genes.
An adult stem cell is said to be the undifferentiated cells that are among the differentiated cells in that can repair it and can differentiate to give in some or all of the main specific type of cell of the organ or tissue. The main roles played by the mature stem cell in an organism are to repair and maintain the tissue where they are found.
The scientists are also known to replace adult stem cells with somatic stem cell, where it is used to refer to the body cells. Unlike the stem cells of the embryonic, which are defined through their origin, an origin of stem cells adult is under investigation up to now.
Their researches have also generated a high level of excitement; they have discovered that the stem cells of the adults are in more tissues than they had thought. This has prompted researchers and clinical officers to researcher whether stem cells of adults can be applied for the transplants. This was found possible, and as adult blood, forming or stem cells of hematopoietic of the adults’ in the bone marrow are used in the transplant for over four decades. They have also proved that these cells are also common in the heart and brain. If this cells variation in the laboratory is controlled, this may be said to the bases for conducting therapies that relate to transplantation.

Adult stem cells don’t present any ethical problems. However, in recent years, there has been controversy surrounding the way human embryonic stem cells are obtained. During the process of harvesting embryotic stem cells, the embryo is destroyed. This raises ethical concerns for people who believe that the destruction of a fertilized embryo is morally wrong.
Opponents believe that an embryo is a living human being. They don’t think the fertilized eggs should be used for research. They argue that the embryo should have the same rights as every other human and that these rights should be protected.
Supporters of stem cell research, on the other hand, believe that the embryos are not yet humans. They note that researchers receive consent from the donor couple whose eggs and sperm were used to create the embryo. Supporters also argue that the fertilized eggs created during in-vitro fertilization would be discarded anyway, so they might be put to better use for scientific research.
With the breakthrough discovery of iPSCs, there may be less of a need for human embryos in research. This may help ease the concerns of those who are against using embryos for medical research. However, if iPSCs have the potential to develop into a human embryo, researchers could theoretically create a clone of the donor. This presents another ethical issue to take into consideration. Many countries already have legislation in place that effectively bans human cloning.

Potential Impact On Health
Stem cell research is important to the future of medicine because with adequate research, stem cells have the potential to treat degenerative conditions by transplanting human stem cells into patients. Presently, many of these chronic conditions have no cure and are managed by treating the symptoms. While the initial cost of receiving stem cell therapy may be high, it has the potential to outweigh the life long costs incurred through daily medications and hospitalizations. By making disease management easier, the quality of life for those diagnosed with these diseases and their family members would be greatly increased. With sufficient development of stem cell therapy, chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and Parkinson’s disease may be more effectively managed. To realize the promise of novel cell-based therapies for such pervasive and debilitating diseases, scientists must be able to easily and reproducibly manipulate stem cells so that they possess the necessary characteristics for successful Buku Stem Cell.

Guidelines For Stem Cell Research
1. The Ministry of Health will undertake to encourage and promote stem cell research in Malaysia.
2. All stem cell research and applications must be reviewed by the respective Institutional Review Board (IRB) and/or the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEB) for approval to ensure ethical research and use of stem cells. The IRB and IEC must strictly adhere to the National Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy.
3. A copy of all research proposals must be submitted to the National Stem Cell Research and Ethics Sub Committee which shall retain the rights to review any research proposal as and when required.
4. All experiments and clinical trials involving stem cells must be based on a solid foundation of basic scientific and animal experimentation and carried out with the highest medical and ethical standards.
5. Research on human adult stem cells is allowed.
6. Research on stem cells derived from foetal tissues from legally performed termination of pregnancy is allowed.
7. Research on non-human stem cells is allowed.
8. Use of embryonic stem cell lines for research purposes is allowed.
9. Research on embryonic stem cells derived from surplus embryos is allowed
10. The creation of human embryos by any means including but not limited to assisted reproductive technology (ART) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) specifically for the purpose of scientific research is prohibited.
11. To facilitate autonomous choice and avoid conflict of interest, decisions related to the production of embryos for infertility treatment should be free of the influence of investigators who propose to derive or use hES cells in research. Whenever it is practicable, the attending physician responsible for the infertility treatment and the investigator deriving or proposing to use hES cells should not be the same person.
12. No cash or in-kind payment may be provided for donating blastocysts in excess of the clinical need for research purposes.

The pursuit and production of knowledge through scientific research is an undertaking that offers enormous intellectual rewards for researchers while also performing an important social function. The advancement of science has transformed our lives in ways that would have been unpredictable just a half-century ago. Whether stem cell research will have a similar effect remains to be determined, but the promise is so great that it seems wise to consider seriously how best to further such research in a manner that is sensitive to public sensibilities. Public conversations about research and the use of human stem cells are well underway. This report is intended to contribute to and inform this ongoing dialogue.
We recognize that science does not exist in isolation from the larger community that feels its effects, whether perceived as good or bad. The work of scientists is, and should be, conditioned and directed by consideration of broader human values. This means that the development of public policy, especially where highly controversial matters are involved, must take all interested sectors of the public into account. It is only through broad-based participation that the values of all stakeholders in the research enterprise can be carefully considered and weighed. We hope that this report has offered an approach that balances the promise of human stem cell research with the public’s genuine concerns about such research in a manner that will lead to a consensus on how best to proceed.       

 Summary Page
stem cell is a specified type of cell possessing unique capability to renew itself and produce specialized types of cells.
Although most body cells are committed to performing specified duties, stem cells are always uncommitted and remain so until they receive a signal to develop into specialized cells. Their ability to turn to specialized cells and proliferation capacity to make stem cells unique from all others.
 For several years study have tried to look out for new conduct to apply stem cells in place for diseased or damaged cells and tissues. Recently, much attention has been accorded to stem cells from researchers and clinicians.
Scientists who have an interest in the development of human have been conducting research on it for a number of years. A stem cell has been one of them and has the capability of developing into any type of cell within the body systems. They have the power to develop to all of the known different type of cells. With their unique properties, stem cells are able to turn from fatal tissue and embryo.
To patients and researcher, there are many issues about stem cells that are unsolved. The prediction of the application of the stem cell is impossible particularly because of the premature stage of the discipline of the stem cell biology. At present, it is impossible to determine in advance which stem cells or techniques for influencing the cells. This will be best tackle needs for primary research and clinical applications for whose answers will be found by doing more research on the issue.

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