Sunday, November 6, 2022


  • A woman who is unable to conceive can have a normal kid via a method known as a "test tube baby."
  • Contrary to what the name suggests, test tube babies are not born in test tubes.
  • The phrase "test tube" refers to a "in-vitro" or "in glass" environment where sperm and eggs are fertilised.
  • In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) technology is what this is.
  • Prof. Robert Winston developed IVF in people first.
  • On July 25, 1978, Patric Steptoe and Robert Edwards (England) created Louise Joy Brown, the world's first female test tube baby, using the same process.
  • Since then, more than 25,000 offspring have been born.

IVF technique consists of:

  1. removing the female's eggs from her ovaries.
  2. In vitro egg maturation cultured in an incubator.
  3. sperm (in semen) from a man used to fertilise eggs in test tubes.
  4. The fertilisation of the gametes takes 12 to 15 hours.
  5. The zygote is moved into another fluid medium that resembles body temperature after fertilisation.
  6. The embryo is put into the uterus of another female who acts as the host animal or surrogate mother once it has reached the 32-celled stage.
  7. These host animals, also known as surrogate moms, are exclusively employed to function as animal incubators and to give birth to offspring following a typical gestation period.
  8. As a consequence, a baby known as a test tube baby is born normally.
  9. Given that the egg is from the donor mother and the semen is from the donor father, the surrogate moms have no genetic influence.

IVF technique has the following advantages:

  • It is one of the biggest medical scientific advancements that benefits the childless couple.
  • Any hereditary illnesses can be examined in embryos.
  • aids in the diagnosis of some fertilisation issues.

Issues with test-tube babies (IVF technique):

  • the fact that the surrogate mother gives birth to the kid even if the ovum does not belong to her.
  • Numerous moral and legal issues, such as child rights, have been brought up.
  • If sperm donation is seen as unethical, the kid born is said to be an illegitimate child (in certain religions).
  • The cost of this method is high.
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